Italy officially the Italian Republic is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq. mi) and has a largely temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate.
With around 61 million inhabitants it is the fourth most populous EU member state. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Carthaginians and Greeks established settlements in the south of Italy, with Etruscans and Celts inhabiting the centre and the north of Italy respectively and various ancient Italian tribes and Italic peoples dispersed throughout the Italian peninsula and insular Italy. The Italic tribe known as the Latin’s formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated its neighbors. Ultimately the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean basin and became the leading cultural, political and religious centre of Western civilization
The current population of Italy is 59,310,770 as of Sunday, March 18, 2018, based on the latest United Nations estimates. Italy population is equivalent to 0.78% of the total world population. Italy ranks number 23 in the list of countries (and dependencies) by population. The population density in Italy is 202 per Km2 (522 people per mi2).The total land area is 294,140 Km2 (113,568 sq. miles) 71.8 % of the population is urban (42,587,390 people in 2018). The median age in Italy is 46.3 years.
With its hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters, Italy experiences a Mediterranean climate. Winters in Italy are cool and humid in the north and the mountainous zone. Sometimes cold air from northern Europe can spread south into Italy; bring snow to most mountains, while the coasts are kept warm by the high sea temperatures. Storms like the Mistral can bring snow and gales, sometimes even in southern districts of Italy. The summer can be quite hot in Italy, mainly in the south of the peninsula, with high nocturnal temperatures of usually 28-33°C, but sometimes even 40°C. Thunderstorms are quite common especially in the northern areas.